Updated: April 27, 2022

MetaMask Casinos: The Ultimate Guide to MetaMask Gambling

Looking to gamble with crypto? You’re in the right place. We looked far and wide for the best MetaMask casinos and finally have our top picks. 

Read on to learn: 

  • What are the top MetaMask casinos of 2022? 
  • Who offers the best bonuses, giveaways, and rewards? 
  • Can you trust crypto casinos? 
  • Why crypto bets aren’t just for blockchain whizzes – and how we pick our favorite casinos? 

Let’s jump right in: 

Excited to get started already? Here’s an overview of our favorite MetaMask gambling spots. We personally tried and tested them – this way, we know we’re only giving you the good stuff:

BC.Game Casino
bc.game

About BC.Game Casino

We ran a 100% anonymous play test for this BC.Game review. Our findings? More than promising! BC.Game offers unique bonuses, including juicy BC.Game shitcodes. And you’ll never be bored. With a huge game selection and amazing social features, this casino is fun central. Plus, we love their commitment to fair gambling – especially the in-house provably fair games.

Overview

Websitebc.game

Established 2017

License Curaçao

Bonus Up to 1 BTC (Wheel of Fortune)

Wagering Requirement

Live Chat Yes

Rating

4.8

Bonuses 5/5

Look & Feel 5/5

Licensing & Safety 4/5

Game Selection 5/5

Payment Options 5/5

Customer Support 5/5

Stake Casino
stake.com

About Stake Casino

Stake is more than just a Bitcoin casino. It’s got hundreds of odds on all the best sports, a fresh look, exclusive games, a top-notch VIP program, and no welcome bonus. That’s right: you won’t find a welcome pack at Stake, but you won’t miss it. Instead, you can take advantage of provably fair games across the board, a fully disclosed house edge, and a wide array of rewarding promotions, including a weekly giveaway where you can win $5,000.

Overview

Websitestake.com

Established 2017

License Curaçao

Bonus $5,000

Wagering Requirement

No Deposit Bonus

Live Chat Yes

Rating

4.8

Bonuses 4/5

Look & Feel 5/5

Licensing & Safety 5/5

Game Selection 5/5

Payment Options 5/5

Customer Support 5/5

Сustomer Reviews 4.5/5

True Flip
trueflip.io

About True Flip

True Flip is a unique blockchain casino. Besides its very own cryptocurrency, it offers original games developed by its own game studio. On top of these exclusive features, True Flip has over 1600 games from some of the world’s biggest brands, which you can play with a large selection of fiat money and cryptos. This is an impressive brand, although it could be improved with the addition of provably fair games and a VIP program.

Overview

Websitetrueflip.io

Established 2017

License Curaçao

Bonus Free spins

Wagering Requirement 1x

No Deposit Bonus Yes

Live Chat Yes

Rating

4.5

Bonuses 4/5

Look & Feel 5/5

Licensing & Safety 4/5

Game Selection 4/5

Payment Options 5/5

Customer Support 5/5

Сustomer Reviews 3.5/5

Cloudbet
cloudbet.com

About Cloudbet

Having been around since 2013, Cloudbet is one of the oldest blockchain casinos. Following its establishment, it has grown into one of the leading Bitcoin casino platforms, even though you can now play and deposit with several other cryptos. It’s a very newcomer-friendly website, even offering a blog to introduce you to the world of Bitcoin gambling. Fans of sports can also join the fun: there is a comprehensive sportsbook product.

Overview

Websitecloudbet.com

Established 2013

License Curaçao

Bonus 5 BTC

Wagering Requirement 800 loyalty points per 0.01 BTC

No Deposit Bonus

Live Chat Yes

Rating

4.7

Bonuses 4/5

Look & Feel 5/5

Licensing & Safety 4/5

Game Selection 5/5

Payment Options 5/5

Customer Support 5/5

Сustomer Reviews 3.9/5

Rocketpot
rocketpot.io

About Rocketpot

Rocketpot is a crypto-forward casino with a stellar game selection and some juicy offers. The recent addition of a sportsbook is already making waves in the gambling space. But is the provider actually worth it? Read more in our Rocketpot review…

Overview

Websiterocketpot.io

Established 2019

License Curaçao

Bonus 100% up to 1BTC

Wagering Requirement 100x

No Deposit Bonus

Live Chat Yes

Rating

4.3

Bonuses 4/5

Look & Feel 4/5

Licensing & Safety 5/5

Game Selection 4/5

Payment Options 4/5

Customer Support 5/5

BitStarz
bitstarz.com

About BitStarz

Unlike some run-of-the-mill gambling sites out there, BitStarz offers a complete playing experience. It includes a vast selection of games from all the top providers, and it’s full of mouth-watering promotions. It asks you to “Dream big, win bigger,” and it lives up to this ambitious slogan with accolades such as the Best Online Casino Award (2018) and the Player’s Choice Award (2019). However, any casino with a large player base is not without its detractors, which is why we took a closer look at this popular brand.

Overview

Websitebitstarz.com

Established 2014

License Curaçao

Bonus 5 BTC + 180 Free Spins

Wagering Requirement 40x

No Deposit Bonus 20 Free Spins

Live Chat Yes

Rating

4.2

Bonuses 5/5

Look & Feel 4/5

Licensing & Safety 3/5

Game Selection 5/5

Payment Options 3/5

Customer Support 5/5

Сustomer Reviews 3.8/5

King Billy Casino
kingbillycasino.com

About King Billy Casino

Get your crown ready, because playing at King Billy Casino can get you a royal title! While playing your favorite games from powerhouses like NetEnt, you can accumulate points and grow your own kingdom. This medieval feel marries surprisingly well with blockchain technology: you can gamble with Ethereum, Bitcoin, and more to earn your royal mantle.

Overview

Websitekingbillycasino.com

Established 2017

License Curaçao

Bonus 5 BTC + 200 Free Spins

Wagering Requirement 30x

No Deposit Bonus

Live Chat Yes

Rating

4.3

Bonuses 5/5

Look & Feel 4/5

Licensing & Safety 4/5

Game Selection 4/5

Payment Options 4/5

Customer Support 5/5

Сustomer Reviews 3.5/5

About mBit

Backed by a mother company that owns 35 casinos, mBit has all the tools needed to offer you the best Bitcoin casino experience. Its thousands of available games will thrill you while you race to win daily prizes. There are so many different promotions and rewards, it’s hard to keep up! And we have to shout out to its VIP program, which is one of the most engaging we’ve seen. However, a few influential studios are missing, and you can’t play with fiat currencies.

Overview

Websitembitcasino.com

Established 2014

License Curaçao

Bonus 5 BTC + 300 Free spins

Wagering Requirement 35x

No Deposit Bonus

Live Chat Yes

Rating

4.5

Bonuses 4/5

Look & Feel 5/5

Licensing & Safety 5/5

Game Selection 4/5

Payment Options 4/5

Customer Support 5/5

Сustomer Reviews 4/5

EarnBet
earnbet.io

About EarnBet

Calling itself the ‘first decentralized casino’, EarnBet is a casino Dapp where you can play an adequate range of provably fair games with different cryptocurrencies. Unusually for a casino Dapp, you’re also getting a welcome bonus on sign up. But it gets better: play regularly and you can even win a part of the casino’s profit and lower the house edge!

Overview

Websiteearnbet.io

Established 2018

License Curaçao

Bonus $50

Wagering Requirement 50x

No Deposit Bonus

Live Chat Yes

Rating

4.5

Bonuses 4/5

Look & Feel 5/5

Licensing & Safety 5/5

Game Selection 4/5

Payment Options 4/5

Customer Support 5/5

Сustomer Reviews 4.1/5

Bodog
bodog.eu

About Bodog

Bodog might not be a blockchain casino first and foremost, but it does offer a decent selection of cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Eth, and Litecoin. The brand is particularly suitable for Bitcoin beginners, with detailed guides introducing new users to the coin. There is also a decent sports betting platform. Their biggest drawback? All gameplay is in fiat money.

Overview

Websitebodog.eu

Established 1994

Licence Antigua and Barbuda

Bonus Up to 120 mBTC

Wagering Requirements 25x

No Deposit Bonus

Live Chat Yes

Rating

4.2

Bonuses 4/5

Look & Feel 5/5

Licensing & Safety 4/5

Game Selection 4/5

Payment Options 3/5

Customer Support 5/5

Blockchain casinos are on the rise. To make our selection, we scoured the Internet for everyone’s favorite games, we read through happy testimonials and less-than-happy customer complaints, but most importantly: 

We tested, tested, tested. 

First-hand experience plus a love for the game – this is how we make our picks. Here is everything you need to know about the best MetaMask casinos of 2022: 

BC Game Casino Homepage

1% house edge or lower? Count us in!

BC.Game Casino is our favorite crypto casino out there, not just for MetaMask users but overall. 

With a tiny house edge (as low as 0.48% on blackjack) and excellent Return-to-Player percentages – 99% and up, it gives you more bang for your buck than most crypto casinos. But that’s not the only thing we love about BC.Game. The crypto-exclusive casino comes with tons of perks for blockchain lovers:

  • Daily spin-the-wheel bonus where you can win up to 1 BTC
  • Engaging promotions like wager-free games and challenges
  • Twenty provably fair games developed internally by BC.Game
  • 100+ live tables to prove your skills
  • Smooth user experience with intuitive design and social features
  • Multi-layer security and third-party certifications (Crypto Gambling Foundation, iTech Labs) 
  • 66 different cryptos, including Ethereum and ERC-20 tokens (BC.Game is one of our favorite Ethereum casinos)

We are also very impressed with the social aspect of BC.Game. Online casinos usually have a chatroom, but BC.Game takes it to the next level. Use the players’ chatroom to interact with other visitors, win rewards, or even ‘make it rain’ if you win big. It’s a fun and unique aspect of the experience.

Is there a catch? Unfortunately, there is one. 

While BC.Game offers exciting bonuses like spin-the-wheel and wager-free promos, there is no traditional welcome bonus. Are you getting the short end of the stick? We don’t think so. The casino still gives you plenty of extra games where you could potentially win more than a depost-match could ever give you. Still, if you prefer a traditional welcome bonus, BC.Game might not be the place for you. 

Ultimately, BC.Game is fun, safe, and value-packed thanks to the low house edge and additional perks. Since it supports ETH and ERC-20 tokens like Chainlink, BC.Game is also the perfect casino for all MetaMask enthusiasts out there. 

BC.Game Casino
bc.game

About BC.Game Casino

We ran a 100% anonymous play test for this BC.Game review. Our findings? More than promising! BC.Game offers unique bonuses, including juicy BC.Game shitcodes. And you’ll never be bored. With a huge game selection and amazing social features, this casino is fun central. Plus, we love their commitment to fair gambling – especially the in-house provably fair games.

Overview

Websitebc.game

Established 2017

License Curaçao

Bonus Up to 1 BTC (Wheel of Fortune)

Wagering Requirement

Live Chat Yes

Rating

4.8

Bonuses 5/5

Look & Feel 5/5

Licensing & Safety 4/5

Game Selection 5/5

Payment Options 5/5

Customer Support 5/5

Stake games

All the games you ever wished for (and more), plus plenty of no-strings-attached bonuses. That’s Stake for you. 

Second on our list, Stake Casino stands out with its vast game selection and transparent bonus scheme. Just like BC.Game, Stake doesn’t offer a welcome bonus. Instead, they opt for regular rewards and promotions, all wager-free and available for instant withdrawal.

Stake is one of the top Ethereum casinos that accept MetaMask. Its standout features include: 

  • Top-notch sportsbook including niche sports like MMA, along with American football, soccer, and more
  • Provably fair, low house edge original games
  • 2000+ slot games from all major providers
  • Multiple cryptos to choose from, including Ethereum
  • Accredited safety with the Crypto Gambling Foundation seal of approval

Right now, Stake Casino is our favorite for sports betting for its vast selection and excellent odds. From American football and basketball to Dota 2 and everything in-between, it’s the best sportsbook out there. 

But, once again, there are some downsides:

❌ No welcome bonus 

Restricted countries (US, UK, some European countries, and more)

Small fee for withdrawals

Even with these drawbacks, though, Stake Casino is one of our favorite MetaMask casinos of 2022. Will it be yours? We’d love to hear your thoughts. Try it out today and come back to share your review.

True Flip casino homepage

With 1600+ games, you’ll never run out of new things to play. And did we mention True Flip even has its own token? 

Ranking third, True Flip is a crypto and fiat casino with an impressive background in blockchain. Not only do they accept a range of cryptocurrencies (including MetaMask-friendly ones), but True Flip also created their proprietary token. Not ready for crypto? You can also deposit from your e-wallet or credit card in fiat currency. 

It gets better, too. Unlike our first two picks, True Flip has a no deposit bonus and a generous weekly cashback.

And, there is plenty to keep you busy on the website. 1600+ games from a range of providers (and True Flip originals) offer many chances to win big. 

Any hitch? Just some minor ones. Like other casinos with a Curaçao license, True Flip has restricted countries like the USA and UK. This also means you can’t deposit USD (since the US is restricted.) Finally, we’d like to see some provably fair games – so far, they’re lacking. 

Even with these cons, True Flip remains our top recommendation if you’re looking for a no deposit bonus. We also think it’s great for players who get easily bored. With so many games on the platform, True Flip won’t let you down. 

Cloudbet games

Almost a decade in the game, Cloudbet remains one of the Internet’s favorite casinos.

The crypto world is new – and so is crypto gambling. Bitcoin was only invented in 2008. Founded in 2013, Cloudbet was one of the crypto casino pioneers. And, they have plenty more to offer: 

✔️ It accepts 23 different cryptos and fiat currency

✔️ You get a 100% match on your first deposit – up to 5 BTC.

✔️ Cloudbet has one of the best VIP programs with perks like extended betting limits and quick withdrawals all the way to exclusive gifts and events. 

✔️ They have thousands of casino games from all major provider.

✔️ Sports enthusiast? Cloudbet also offers a standout sportsbook product.

But, there are some downsides:

❌ KYC check for withdrawals, meaning Cloudbet isn’t anonymous.

❌ Restricted in certain countries, including the US, UK, and the Netherlands.

All in all, Cloudbet is still a reputable and high-quality online casino, and that applies to MetaMask users and all other gamblers alike. 

Rocketpot Homepage

Play the day away! With a 10% daily cashback, Rocketpot gives you double value for your money. 

Next on the top-ten list, Rocketpot is a newcomer on the crypto casino scene, but they’re definitely making a splash. With 10% daily cashback on your net losses and 3000+ games, they’re becoming a crypto gambling powerhouse. Oh, and let’s not forget the 300+ different table games either. 

The fine print? While Rocketpot matches your initial deposit for up to 1BTC, the bonus is only available in BTC. If you’re a die-hard altcoin enthusiast, this simply won’t work for you. Fingers crossed that Rocketpot fixes the issue soon. 

Other than that, we’re happy to report that Rocketpot is already a fan-favorite among crypto casino aficionados, and they’re growing by the minute. We’re excited to see where the project goes and how it grows!

Award-winning casino BizStarz offers exciting play and generous bonuses. Who wouldn’t be a fan? 

BitStarz is, pun intended, almost star. With multiple online gambling awards under its belt, the company is one of the Internet’s largest crypto casinos. With sleek, user-friendly design and a head-spinning selection of games, it’s no wonder they’re a top pick on so many casino reviews. On top of that, you get generous welcome bonus (double your deposit up to 1BTC) and cheeky promo games like Slot Wars and Table Wars. 

Unlike other casinos in our selection, BitStarz gives equal attention to crypto and fiat. They don’t, however, have many MetaMask tokens. Right now, they accept:

  • Bitcoin
  • Bitcoin Cash
  • Ethereum
  • Dogecoin
  • Tether
  • Litecoin

You can store most of these on MetaMask, but we still want more options, e.g., Chainlink. 

But you might be thinking:

Why almost a star?

Unfortunately, users have reported withdrawal difficulties with BitStarz.

Like other providers, this casino too has restricted countries. If you reside in one of them, you’re expected to self-exclude – a.k.a. not play the game. However, BitStarz will let you register, deposit, and play without checking.

To add insult to injury, users have complained that customer support was unhelpful, sometimes downright rude when dealing with this issue.

So should you risk it with BitStarz? Thankfully, you don’t have to.

Since the casino offers a no deposit bonus (you get to play without spending your own money), you can have your proverbial cake and eat it, too. We suggest taking advantage of this promotion to try out the casino before committing your crypto. This way, you get a feel for the gameplay, but you’re not risking any money. It’s a win-win!

King Billy Casino

kingbilly casino homepage

Don’t let the medieval theme fool you – this is a blockchain-enthusiastic casino. Long live the king!

King Billy has been on our radar for a while now. It consistently ranks high on our selections, wins industry-leading awards, and grows in players by the minute. 

What is their secret? 

For starters, King Billy gives you up to 5 BTC in welcome bonuses alone! 

The platform also has a unique take on the online betting scene. Instead of looking super-futuristic, they have a medieval theme complete with crowns, scrolls, and quills. 

We enjoy the fresh approach and love the games even more. You’ll find all the classics like NetEnt’s Dead Or Alive alongside new and exciting slots, jackpots, and a wide range of table games. 

The downside for MetaMask users? King Billy emphasizes Bitcoin and only offers a couple of other cryptos. Granted, these include Ethereum, but other altcoins are sadly missing. 

mBit

mBit Casino homepage

Backed by a major mother company, mBit is well-loved for its lavish bonuses and iron-clad safety. Did we mention the excellent VIP program, too? 

Another big player in the (new) crypto game. Not only does mBit have seven years of experience, but their mother company owns 35 other online casinos. We love new and exciting companies; however, we know experience means security. Whether you’re gambling in BTC or ETH, mBit has your back. 

But let’s talk about the exciting stuff, too. 

It all starts with the generous welcome bonus:

Even better, these are also available in other cryptocurrencies. Most MetaMask users, for example, will be playing with Ethereum. No worries – you’ll still get the same terrific bonus. 

mBit also has one of the best VIP programs we’ve seen in an online casino. From VIP-only rewards to your own virtual butler service, this MetaMask casino sure knows how to reward its loyal customers. 

So, is there a flipside? One of mBit’s major drawbacks is the lack of provably fair games. While their background is solid, we still want to see for ourselves – can we trust mBit? So, until they introduce provably fair options, this otherwise stellar casino stays at No. 8 on our list. 

EarnBet

EarnBet Homepage

The world’s first decentralized casino – here’s what that means for players like you: 

Blockchain technology is exciting because it allows us to decentralize virtually everything. Why not casinos? EarnBet is here to fill that gap. 

Founded in 2016, EarnBet takes casino Dapps to the next level. This is a complete online casino with all your favorite games and even a welcome bonus. 

The twist? You also earn BET tokens as you bet – and BET holders get the casino’s profit. It’s almost hard to get your head around it. The house always wins, but with EarnBet, you get a share of the casino’s money. Talk about a breakthrough!

Aside from this revolutionary approach, EarnBet also offers an impressively low house edge. In this MetaMask casino, your Return-to-Player percentage can be as high as 99.5% – we love these numbers. On top, all games are 100% provably fair, so you know you’re not being tricked.

But, there is a tradeoff. Major game producers are missing, and original games don’t shine with production value. There are also no slots on EarnBet, which is a significant drawback. 

Ultimately, EarnBet has improvements to make, but it’s still an exciting project. Let’s see where decentralization takes them!

BaoCasino

bao casino home screen

2000+ exciting games, no-fee withdrawals, and plenty of bonuses – Bao delivers over and over again. 

When it comes to game variety, Bao Casino doesn’t skimp. The Cyprus-based site boasts over 2000 titles from big-name developers and up-and-coming producers alike. Bao Casino boasts a huge slots collection, big-win jackpots, and a range of live casino games to enjoy. 

But, there is a catch. Bao’s portfolio may be impressive, but crypto gambling is limited to certain brands. If you want more options, you’d still go back to fiat. 

So should you gamble crypto? We vote yes and here’s why: 

Most online casinos charge you for taking out your money. It’s a small fee, but a fee nonetheless. Not Bao Casino. Here, all crypto withdrawals are free and instant – and there is no maximum withdrawal either. You only pay for fiat withdrawals which is where the 7.5% withdrawal fee applies.

Now that we covered our top picks, you might be wondering: 

Why these casinos? 

As the crypto betting world grows, new casinos seem to pop up every day. It’s a competitive landscape, so we want to be completely transparent about our process. 

Here is how we analyzed & ranked the best MetaMask casinos: 

  1. We read through reviews from avid players like you. We made a list of casinos that people are loving – and noted the complaints they had, too. 
  2. We signed up for the casino, creating multiple accounts. Why? Because we want to test every aspect of gameplay and because we know opinions can be subjective. 
  3. We deposited real money using MetaMask. We only included casinos where the experience was fast and smooth. 
  4. We played the games – wins, losses, they all teach you a lesson. We were looking for large portfolios, exciting new games, and multiple game providers, as well as a lower house edge. 
  5. We evaluated our wins, including any bonuses and promos. 
  6. We withdrew our money and rated the process. Was it easy? Fast? Any fees? 
  7. We contacted customer service to make sure they’re responsive and friendly. You don’t want a company that disappears at the first issue. 

Finally, we compiled all that information into a concise, to-the-point review and ranked our favorite casinos. We’d never recommend a platform that we ourselves wouldn’t use – that’s why getting into the top 10 MetaMask casinos was so competitive. 

Short answer: yes, it is. 

MetaMask is a reliable cryptocurrency wallet, and it’s casino-friendly. Let’s break it down: 

Are You Allowed to Use MetaMask for Gambling?

Some crypto wallets will restrict what you can pay for. Not MetaMask. 

As long as you don’t break local laws (e.g., by visiting an online casino if you’re underage), you are good to go. 

Is MetaMask a Secure Wallet?

MetaMask is free and user-friendly. But will it protect your precious crypto? 

For the most part, yes. 

With MetaMask, your private key stays private. The team behind the wallet doesn’t have access to this unique code – meaning they can’t access your assets either. Remember, “not your keys, not your coins”. MetaMask gets a big green check for this one. 

But can your wallet still be compromised? 

Yes, and here is the most common way that would happen: 

MetaMask doesn’t know your key. So, if you ever lose your password, they give you a secret recovery phrase or a seed phrase. It’s a 12-word sequence to help you recover the wallet if you ever forget your password. 

To protect yourself:

Write it down and keep it safe.

Anyone that has your secret phrase can access your wallet and steal your crypto. Don’t let that happen. Avoid sharing your seed phrase or private key with anyone – and keep both in a safe location (ideally, several safe locations.)

MetaMask is safe and gambling-friendly. Plus, it’s also one of the easiest wallets to use. Let’s go through the steps of setting it up together: 

Install the App or Extension

Metamask Homepage screenshot
Follow the download link from the official MetaMask.io page to avoid scammers.

MetaMask is both a mobile app and Chrome extension.

To install it: 

  • Go to Metamask.io.
  • Click Download now.
  • Choose either Chrome, iOS, or Android. 
  • Click Install MetaMask for Chrome/iPhone/Android to begin the setup.

Now, let’s talk about getting your new wallet up and running:

On Desktop

The Install MetaMask for Chrome button will send you to the Chrome web store. Click Add to Chrome to begin the download. 

Once the extension installs, you can either log into an old wallet (with your seed phrase) or start a new one.

For this tutorial, we’re starting a new one:

✔️ First, set up a secure password. You have to use at least eight characters. 

✔️ Watch the seed phrase explainer video. You will see your seed phrase – click to unlock:

✔️ Write down your seed phrase. Confirm you have it by ordering the words correctly. We recommend you keep your secret recovery phrase in multiple locations, too. This way, if one notebook/device gets destroyed, your wallet is still safe.

Oh, and the good news is you’re all set – your new MetaMask wallet is ready to go. 

On Mobile

Using MetaMask on your Android or iPhone device isn’t that different from desktop. After installation, you get three options:

  • Create a new wallet
  • Import using seed phrase 
  • Sync with MetaMask extension

To create your wallet, you follow the same steps as on desktop. Start with a secure password. Then, unlock and write down your seed phrase. Confirm the phrase, and you’re good to go. 

Making Casino Deposits With MetaMask

Your MetaMask wallet can hold any ERC-20 token – Ethereum, Chainlink, Tether, and more. To make a casino deposit, first copy your casino’s address. You’ll see this when you first sign up. 

The deposit might take a few minutes (or even an hour) to appear on your account. This depends on how busy the network is and, for some coins, the gas fee you pay. But, worry not. Your crypto is well on its way to your casino account. Ready to play!

MetaMask is the world’s leading Ethereum and ERC-20 wallet. Easy-to-use, secure, and accessible – we get why you love it. And, now you can also play your favorite casino games without leaving the cryptosphere. 

Our MetaMask casino picks offer everything from sports betting to slots, plus lucrative bonuses and VIP programs. What is your favorite crypto casino? Let us know in the comments below: